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Regarding 19th century the fresh new Russian vanguard democrats V

Grams. Belinskii, A beneficial. We. Herzen, and you will N. Grams. Chernyshevskii approached good materialist dialectic. Compared with Hegel, they derived cutting edge conclusions on ideas regarding endless action and you can development: to them dialectic is actually new “algebra out-of wave” (get a hold of A beneficial. We. Herzen, Sobr. soch. vol. 9, 1956, p. 23). Bourgeois opinions shortly after Hegel became out of the triumph on the section of dialectic that had been reached within the beliefs. Hegels dialectic are declined by several philosophers since the “sophistry,” a keen “mistake into the reasoning,” and also good “diseased perversion from notice” (R. Haym, A beneficial. Trendelenburg, and you can Elizabeth. von Hartmann). On Neo-Kantianism of Marburg University (H. Cohen, P. ” Neo-Hegelianism arrived at the fresh new very-called negative dialectic, asserting the contradictions revealed in principles attest into nonreality, otherwise “seemingness,” of its things. The fresh unity out-of opposites try changed from the a beneficial unity away from coexisting, secondary issues with regard to achieving an integration of knowledge (F. Bradley). Dialectic and additionally emerged because the a blending from opposites, with the help of absolute intuition (B. Croce, Roentgen. Kroner, and i. An excellent. Ilin). H. Bergson advanced a request towards unreasonable and you will strictly instinctive combining of opposites, a combo become treated once the a beneficial “miracle.” When you look at the existentialism (K. Jaspers, J. P. Sartre) the new dialectic try realized relativistically, just like the an around chance build of understanding. Nature is generally accepted as the fresh new sphere of “positivist cause,” whereas society is known by means of “dialectical reason,” and this derives their beliefs regarding peoples awareness and the personal important feel off human beings. Most other existentialists (G. Marcel, Yards. Buber) dump dialectic theologically, while the a system off concerns and answers between consciousness and being. Details out of a bad dialectic created because a total denial away from fact and never ultimately causing a different synthesis have been developed by T. Adorno and you will H. Marcuse.

A consistently materialist translation out of dialectic was available with K. Marx and you may F. Engels, the new creators of the philosophy off dialectical materialism. Just after vitally exceeding the latest achievements out of preceding dialectic, Marx and you may Engels applied its philosophy for the reworking away from thinking, political economy, and records in order to the foundation from a policy and you will systems toward experts path. V. I. Lenin produced a great contribution into growth of materialist dialectic. New classics of Marxism-Leninism regard materialist dialectic given that philosophy away from common interconnections and you will more general laws and regulations out of development of getting and you may thought.

Natorp) the fresh dialectic from “abstract facts” was replaced because of the “reason of analytical idea of setting,” which led to a great negation of idea of compound and you may so you’re able to “real idealism

For the characterizing dialectic, Engels blogged: “Main legislation: transformation out-of wide variety and you can high quality-shared penetration out of polar opposites and you will conversion to the each other when sent to help you extremes; invention through contradiction, or negation away from negation; [and] the brand new spiral brand of innovation” (Dialektika prirody, 1969, p. 1). Legislation of one’s unity and conflict from opposites occupies a beneficial unique put among all of the rules of the dialectic; Lenin titled they the fresh main center of the dialectic.

Materialist dialectic was expressed within the a system out-of categories and you can rules

The chief of your own common interconnection out of phenomena is appointed by Lenin as one of the rules of your own dialectic. And this the following methodological conclusion: to help you genuinely discover an object, you have to seize they and read it of the sides, along with its interconnections and mediacies. Into the characterizing dialectic because drop you to repeats, as it had been, amounts that have come introduced due to however, repeats them within the yet another ways, into the a higher foundation (the fresh negation out of negation); a reports, as we say, that proceeds within the spirals, perhaps not inside the a straight line; a news because of the jumps, catastrophes, and innovations; break in continuity; new transformation from quantity on quality; interior signals on creativity, imparted by the contradiction and you can disagreement of the numerous forces and you may inclinations acting abreast of certain human anatomy, or contained in this confirmed people; brand new interdependence therefore the nearest and you may indissoluble union of the many issue of every technology … a connection that give an effective consistent and common procedure of action, one which follows definite laws and regulations; a few of the options that come with dialectics, given that a drop which is richer than the antique that” (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. twenty six, p. 55).

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